A Few Facts on CBD for You and Fido

Industrial Hemp is not the snake oil of the twenty-first century. It is the ancient herb that will transform the twenty-first century.

Full Spectrum CBD Oil contains naturally present non-psychotropic cannabinoids and diverse synergistic terpenoids, with less than 0.3% THC, as required by law. It is derived from Industrial Hemp, not marijuana.

In 2003, The Federal Health and Human Services attained a patent for use of CBD as a treatment for various neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders. Read the full patent here: 
US Patent 6,630,507 Patents are not granted for things that do not work.

The federal government does not allow retailers to advertise nutrtitional or medicinal claims of hemp products on their websites or in stores. This is the same government that granted US Patent 6,630,507 and the newest, granted on December 4, 2018, US Patent 10,143,755 for hydrogels and dermal patches, some containing HEMP Oil (CBD). So, this blog reviews hemp products and shares hemp’s health benefits. Only products with scientifically tested, not visually tested or claimed to be tested, with ‘excellent’ Full Profile’ Certificates of Analysis and full transparency are on the ‘Welcome List.’ CBD Girl Next Door is your CBD Watchdog.

An important breakthrough was in 1990, when government-funded research led to the identification of endocannabinoid receptors, the most abundant neurotransmitter receptor of the brain, the CB1. A second cannabinoid named CB2 was also identified at this time, which is throughout the immune system and nervous system. All mammals have CB1 and CB2 receptors. CBD doesn’t bind to these receptors, but instead interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system. All mammals are designed to receive CBD, via the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). Yes, you and your pets can live a full copacetic CBD life.

CBD, Cannabidiol, occurs naturally in cannabis plants. 

The ECS is involved in regulating the homeostatic functions of sleep, appetite, pain and the immune system response. The body produces endocannabinoids and has two receptors for cannabinoids, called the CB1 receptors and CB2 receptors. Research has discovered that CBD may work to reduce pain in two ways: by changing the way your body interprets the pain from your brain, and by lowering and preventing inflammation in the body. 

More on How CBD works can be found here: How CBD Works

More information on The Endocannabinoid System, including “Extensive preclinical research—much of it sponsored by the U.S. government—indicates that CBD oil has potent anti-tumoral, antioxidant, anti-spasmodic, anti-psychotic, anti-convulsive, and neuroprotective properties. CBD directly activates serotonin receptors, causing an anti-anxiety effect, as well,” from the website, Project CBD. 

Full Spectrum CBD Oil has been used as a dietary supplement, like other herbal remedies for a range of uses from health and wellness to pain management. According to the scientific research, CBD is shown to increase anandamide, a molecule which aids in reducing anxiety and pain – to keep us copacetic and relieving stress is the first steop to relieving a host of issues. It is so effective that CBD is used for epileptic patients to help relieve muscle spasms while having an overall positive effect on the immune system. Read the complete FDA statement on Epidiolex (CBD oral solution), the epilespy drug.

CBD Oil’s earthy fragrance is from its numerous terpenes. Terpenes are powerful molecules with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. 

The receptors are part of the body’s endocannabinoid system and are found throughout the digestive tract, central nervous, cardiovascular, immune and other systems, according to an article from Dr. J. Michael Bostwick, a psychiatrist at the Mayo Clinic.


This image is from the U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System
Shenglong Zou and Ujendra Kumar*https://dx.doi.org/10.3390%2Fijms19030833
Zou, Shenglong, et al. “Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 19, no. 3, 2018, pp. 833.

Cannabinoids work naturally with all mammals’ endocannabinoid systems.

Why Full Spectrum is a better choice

The above link carries an article with research on Full Spectrum CBD as a non-opioid alternative to pain. The article also posits that less Full Spectrum CBD is better than Isolate CBD Oil. 

CBD and PTSD

The article in the above link posits that the body’s homeostatic level of CB1 anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid compound, that regulates fear and anxiety is regulated with Full Spectrum CBD Oil.

CBD and Sleep

The article in the above link shares that Full Spectrum CBD works with CB1 receptors to regulate sleep.

Beginner’s Guide on What is CBD and Dosage

The above link has much useful information.

How CBD helps keep us on an even keel = Homeostasis and more

Learn more about Full Spectrum CBD from the above link.

Full Spectrum contains beneficial ‘Terpenes’ for the entourage effect

The article in the above link contains terpene information and explains its benefits. Contains cannabinoids and terpenes naturally available from the flower resulting in an entourage effect. Rich in fatty acids, Plant sterols, chlorophyll, and Vitamin E.
Nutritionally, hemp is exceptional. Hemp is 33% protein and contains both omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids, and antioxidants – vitamin E and carotene, and chlorophyll. It also contains magnesium, calcium, sulfur, phosphorous, iron and zinc. Hemp oil’s nutty flavor makes it a great substitute oil. Use it in salads, dips, soups and smoothies. CBD Oil uses include cooking, but heat will reduce effectiveness. Do not expose to heat over 300 degrees. Add to smoothies but avoid highly acidic citrus juices like grapefruit as acid can also alter the effectiveness.

Full Spectrum CBD research in Anxiety Disorder

The above link carries information on Full Spectrum CBD and research on anxiety disorders.

Next to Fido, Full Spectrum CBD Oil may be your new best friend and Fido will thank you for a life with Full Spectrum CBD Oil.

Have a great day!

Your Watchdog

References

US Patent 6,630,507 http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=6630507.PN.&OS=PN/6630507&RS=PN/6630507

US Patent 6,630,507


Eshhar et al., “Neuroprotective and Antioxidant Activities of HU-211, A Novel NMDA Receptor Antagonist,” European Journal of Pharmacology, 283:19-29 (1995). 

Cannabidiol protects rat brains from ischemia damage Volume of Infarct Behavioral Deficit (mm3) Score Animal Drug Control Drug Control 1 108.2 110.5 3 2 2 83.85 119.6 4 4 3 8.41 118.9 3 4 4 75.5 177.7 1 4 5 60.53 33.89 1 3 6 27.52 255.5 1 5 7 23.16 143 1 4 Mean 55.3 137.0 2.0 3.7 SEM 13.8 25.7 0.5 0.4 p = 0.016 significant p = 0.015 significant *Neurological scoring is performed on a subjective 1-5 scale of impairment. 0 = no impairment, 5 = severe (paralysis)

This data shows that infarct size was approximately halved in the animals treated with cannabidiol, which was also accompanied by a substantial improvement in the neurological status of the animal.

These studies with the nonpsychotropic marijuana constituent, cannabidiol, demonstrate that protection can be achieved against both glutamate neurotoxicity and free radical induced cell death. THC, the psychoactive principle of cannabis, also blocked glutamate neurotoxicity with a potency similar to cannabidiol. In both cases, neuroprotection is unaffected by the presence of a cannabinoid receptor antagonist. These results therefore surprisingly demonstrate that cannabinoids can have useful therapeutic effects that are not mediated by cannabinoid receptors, and therefore are not necessarily accompanied by psychoactive side effects. Cannabidiol also acts as an anti-epileptic and anxiolytic, which makes it particularly useful in the treatment of neurological diseases in which neuroanatomic defects can predispose to seizures (e.g. subarachnoid hemorrhage).

A particular advantage of the cannabinoid compounds of the present invention is that they are highly lipophilic, and have good penetration into the central nervous system. The volume of distribution of some of these compounds is at least 100 L in a 70 kg person (1.4 L/kg), more particularly at least 250 L, and most particularly 500 L or even 700 L in a 70 kg person (10 L/kg). The lipophilicity of particular compounds is also about as great as that of THC, cannabidiol or other compounds that have excellent penetration into the brain and other portions of the CNS.

https://www.projectcbd.org/science/terpenes-and-entourage-effect

https://www.chicagotribune.com/business/ct-biz-cbd-products-chicago-20181214-story.html

U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System
Shenglong Zou and Ujendra Kumar*https://dx.doi.org/10.3390%2Fijms19030833
Zou, Shenglong, et al. “Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 19, no. 3, 2018, pp. 833.

US Patent 10,374,036 http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=8&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=cbd&s2=cbn&OS=cbd+AND+cbn&RS=cbd+AND+cbn

Cannabinoids


Cannabis sativa L. is one of the most widely used plants for both recreational and medicinal purposes. Over 500 natural constituents have been isolated and identified from C. sativa covering several chemical classes (Ahmed et al. (2008) J. Nat. Prod. 71:536-542; Ahmed et al. (2008) Tetrahedron Lett. 49:6050-6053; ElSohly & Slade (2005) Life Sci. 78:539-548; Radwan et al. (2009) J. Nat. Prod. 72:906-911; Radwan et al. (2008) Planta Medial. 74:267-272; Radwan et al. (2008) J. Nat. Prod. 69:2627-2633; Ross et al. (1995) Zagazig J. Pharm. Sci. 4:1-10; Turner et al. (1980) J. Nat. Prod. 43:169-170). Cannabinoids belong to the chemical class of terpenophenolics, of which at least 85 have been uniquely identified in cannabis (Borgelt et al. (2013) Pharmacotherapy 33:195-209).

Cannabinoids are ligands to cannabinoid receptors (CB.sub.1, CB.sub.2) found in the human body (Pertwee (1997) Pharmacol. Ther. 74:129-180). The cannabinoids are usually divided into the following groups: classical cannabinoids; non-classical cannabinoids; aminoalkylindole-derivatives; and eicosanoids (Pertwee (1997) Pharmacol. Ther. 74:129-180). Classical cannabinoids are those that have been isolated from C. sativa L. or their synthetic analogs. Non-classical cannabinoids are bi- or tri-cyclic analogs of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (without the pyran ring). Aminoalkylindoles and eicosanoids are substantially different in structure compared to classical and non-classical cannabinoids. The most common natural plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids) are cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabinol (CBN). The most psychoactive cannabinoid is .DELTA..sup.9-THC.

In recent years, marijuana and its components have been reported in scientific literature to counter the symptoms of a broad range of conditions including but not limited to multiple sclerosis and other forms of muscular spasm; movement disorders; pain, including migraine headache; glaucoma; asthma; inflammation; insomnia; and high blood pressure. There may also be utility for cannabinoids as anxiolytics, anti-convulsives, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, anti-cancer agents, as well as appetite stimulants. Pharmacological and toxicological studies of cannabinoids have largely been focused on a synthetic analog of .DELTA..sup.9-THC (commercially available under the generic name Dronabinol). In 1985, Dronabinol was approved by the FDA for the treatment of chemotherapy associated nausea and vomiting, and later for AIDS-associated wasting and anorexia.

Therapeutic use of cannabinoids has been hampered by the psychoactive properties of some compounds (e.g., Dronabinol) as well as their low bioavailability when administered orally. Bioavailability refers to the extent and rate at which the active moiety (drug or metabolite) enters systemic circulation, thereby accessing the site of action. The low bioavailability of orally ingested cannabinoids (from about 6% to 20%; Adams & Martin (1996) Addiction 91: 1585-614; Agurell et al. (1986) Pharmacol. Rev. 38: 21-43; Grotenhermen (2003) Clin. Pharmacokinet. 42: 327-60) has been attributed to their poor dissolution properties and extensive first pass metabolism.

Cannabinoids are a heteromorphic group of chemicals which directly or indirectly activate the body’s cannabinoid receptors. There are three main types of cannabinoids: herbal cannabinoids that occur uniquely in the cannabis plant, synthetic cannabinoids that are manufactured, and endogenous cannabinoids that are produced in vivo. Herbal cannabinoids are nearly insoluble in water but soluble in lipids, alcohol, and non-polar organic solvents. These natural cannabinoids are concentrated in a viscous resin that is produced in glandular structures known as trichomes. In addition to cannabinoids, the resin is rich in terpenes, which are largely responsible for the odor of the cannabis plant.

The identification of .DELTA..sup.9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as a major psychoactive drug and its chemical synthesis in 1964 opened a new era of synthetic cannabinoids as pharmacological agents. Cannabinoid research has increased tremendously in recent years since the discovery of cannabinoid receptors and the endogenous ligands for these receptors. The receptors include CB1, predominantly expressed in the brain, and CB2, primarily found on the cells of the immune system. Cannabinoid receptors belong to a superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. They are single polypeptides with seven transmembrane .alpha.-helices, and have an extracellular, glycosylated N-terminus and intracellular C-terminus. Both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are linked to G1/0-proteins. In addition to these receptors, endogenous ligands for these receptors capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of THC have also been discovered. Such ligands were designated endocannabinoids and included anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). Anandamide is produced in the brain and peripheral immune tissues such as the spleen.

Unlike THC, which exerts its action by binding to CB1 and CB2, cannabidiol does not bind to these receptors and hence has no psychotropic activity. Instead, cannabidiol indirectly stimulates endogenous cannabinoid signaling by suppressing the enzyme that breaks down anandamide (fatty acid amide hydroxylase, “FAAH”). Cannabidiol also stimulates the release of 2-AG. Cannabidiol has been reported to have immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory properties, to exhibit anticonvulsive, anti-anxiety, and antipsychotic activity, and to function as an efficient neuroprotective antioxidant.

Cannabinoids in cannabis are often inhaled via smoking, but may also be ingested. Smoked or inhaled cannabinoids have reported bioavailabilities ranging from 2-56%, with an average of about 30% (Huestis (2007) Chem. Biodivers. 4:1770-1804; McGilveray (2005) Pain Res. Manag. 10 Suppl. A:15A-22A). This variability is mainly due to differences in smoking dynamics. Cannabinoids that are absorbed through the mucous membranes in the mouth (buccomucosal application) have bioavailabilities of around 13% (Karschner et al. (2011) Clin. Chem. 57:66-75). By contrast, when cannabinoids are ingested, bioavailability is typically reduced to about 6% (Karschner et al. (2011) Clin. Chem. 57:66-75).

Cannabinoid benefits. Data suggest a physiological role of the endocannabinoid system in the functions of immune cells with respect to inflammation. Chronic inflammation causes DNA changes and increases the risk of cancer. 2018https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2018/1691428/

Diabetes, cardio, inflammation, homeostasis, cancer, MS, seizures, Medical News Today benefits of CBD, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319475.php

Crippa, J. A. S., Derenusson, G. N., Ferrari, T. B., Wichert-Ana, L., Duran, F. L., Martin-Santos, R., … Hallak, J. E. C. (2011). Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. Journal of Psychopharmacology25(1), 121–130. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881110379283 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881110379283?journalCode=jopa&

US Patent 8,106,244

Listed as references within this patent:

Craigmill, A.L., “Cannabinoids and Handling-Induced Convulsions,” Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior 4(1):51-63 (1979).

Harvey, D.J., “Absorption, Distribution, and Biotransformation of the Cannabinoids,” Marihuana and Medicine, G.G. Nahas et al., (ed.), HumanaPress Inc., Totowa, New Jersey, Chapter 2, pp. 91-103 (1999).

US Patent 10,383,816


The therapeutically active agents used in the formulations and methods of the invention comprise cannabinoid drug(s). Cannabinoids are a diverse class of chemical compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors on cells and influence neurotransmitter release in brain. These receptor proteins include endocannabinoids produced naturally in humans and animals, phytocannabinoids in cannabis and some other plants, and chemically manufactured synthetic cannabinoids. Endo, phyto and/or synthetic cannabinoids cause neurotransmitter release which results in nerve transmission. Phytocannabinoid .DELTA.9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is primary psychoactive compound of cannabis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another major constituent of the plant, up to 40% extracts of plant resin. Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of many active cannabinoids in cannabis. The cannabinoid may be derived from endocannabinoids (derived, e.g., from foods (Omega-3s and Omega-6s); phytocannabinoids (plant derived, e.g., from buds, tinctures, extracts, including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), etc.); and synthetic cannabinoids (such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)). At least 85 different cannabinoids isolated from cannabis exhibit varied effects. In certain preferred embodiments, the cannabinoid drug(s), or are not psychoactive or are substantially not psychoactive (meaning that if included in the formulation, they are not in sufficient amount that a unit dose of the formulation would cause the patient to have a psychoactive effect). In certain preferred embodiments, as will be explained further below, the cannabinoid drug is actually a mixture of two or more cannabinoids (e.g., CBD and THC together in a CBD:THC ratio that provides a therapeutic effect while substantially not psychoactive or not psychoactive at all).

The endocannabinoid system (“ECS”) consists of a group of endogenous cannabinoid receptors located in mammalian brain and throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. These entail neuromodulatory lipids and their associated receptors. As the body’s “endogenous,” cannabinoid system, ECS is involved in a variety of physiological processes including neurological functions dealing with pain, mood, memory; and, movement, and sensation. The body’s immune function and cell homeostasis is also maintained by ECS. It mediates the psychoactive effects of the cannabis (marijuana) plant. Cannabinoids are a diverse class of compounds that include many of the unique compounds found in marijuana.

Cannabinoids produce physiological and behavioral effects through interaction with specific membrane-bound receptors. Two primary endocannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 and CB2. There is mounting evidence that more endocannabinoid receptors exist. CB1 receptors are found predominantly in brain (specifically in basal ganglia and limbic system, including hippocampus) and nervous system, as well as in peripheral organs and tissues. These are acted on by the endocannabinoid binding molecule Anandamide. Of G protein-coupled type receptors (GPCR) in human brain, cannabinoid receptors are the most plentiful. CB1 receptors responsible for euphoric and anti-convulsive effects of cannabis. CB2 receptors found only in peripheral nervous system appear responsible for anti-inflammatory effect such as pain relief. One other main endocannabinoid is 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), active at both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Its mimetic phytocannabinoid is cannabidiol (CBD), while that of Anandamide is THC, responsible for psycho-active effects. 2-AG and CBD are involved in regulation of appetite, immune system functions and pain management.

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been the primary focus of cannabis research since 1964, when Raphael Mechoulam isolated and synthesized it. More recently, the synergistic contributions of cannabidiol to cannabis pharmacology and analgesia have been scientifically demonstrated. Other phytocannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol and cannabichromene, exert additional effects of therapeutic interest. Innovative conventional plant breeding has yielded cannabis chemotypes expressing high titres of each component for future study.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is considered the “medical component” of cannabis and hemp. CBD is considered to have a wide scope of medical applications. It acts as 5-HT1A receptor agonist which may explain its antidepressant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective effects. Cannabidiol modulates opioid receptors involved with pain perception. CBD is not psychoactive and relieves convulsion, inflammation, anxiety, and nausea. It has also been found to play a role in preventing short-term memory loss from THC. Antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol represent potential treatment of schizophrenia. Oral CBD formulation received orphan drug status in US as treatment for Dravet syndrome, an intractable seizure disorder also known as Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy (SMEI). Nabiximols, trade name Sativex, is an aerosolized mist for oral administration containing 1:1 ratio of CBD and THC approved 2005 in Canada for multiple sclerosis associated pain. CBD has a greater affinity for CB2 than CB1 receptor.

CBD acts as serotonin (5-HT1A) receptor agonist which may explain its antidepressant, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective effects. CBD modulates opioid receptors involved with pain perception. CBD is not psychoactive and relieves convulsion (seizures), inflammation, anxiety, and nausea. It has been found to play a role in preventing short-term memory loss from THC. Antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol represents potential treatment of schizophrenia. CBD has a greater affinity for CB2 than CB1 receptors.

Strains of cannabis containing higher CBD concentrations did not produce short-term memory impairment compared to those with similar concentrations of THC, but lower CBD concentrations. Attenuation of memory effects attributed to CBD’s function as CB1 antagonist. Transdermal CBD has been shown to be neuroprotective in animals. Antioxidant properties of cannabidiol have been shown to play a role in its neuroprotective and anti-ischemic effects. Animal experiments indicate CBD may help in treating Parkinson’s disease.

It is known to those skilled in the art that studies have suggested that many cannabinoid compounds work together to produce a synergy of effects. This is known as the `entourage effect.” Thus, in certain preferred embodiments, the formulations of the invention contain more than one cannabinoid compound, which provide an “entourage effect.”

CBD has anti-psychotic effects which may counteract psychotomimetic effects of THC, euphoric and hallucinogenic component of cannabis. Reports show CBD safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. A double blind trial comparing purified cannabidiol to atypical antipsychotic amisulpride in acute paranoid schizophrenia showed both treatments were associated with significant decrease in psychotic symptoms after 2 weeks; but cannabidiol was associated with significantly fewer side effects. Studies show cannabidiol affects limbic system, decreasing symptoms of social anxiety and isolation. Cannabidiol has demonstrated antidepressant-like effects in animal models of depression.

  • Marotti, Ally. What is CBD, does it Work and Why is it Suddenly Trendy? Cannabis Products — Caramels, Bath Bombs, Oils — are Filling Store Shelves. Tribune Interactive, LLC, Chicago, 2018.

CBD Girl Next Door offers free reviews of hemp products and COA’s. Qualifying hemp farmers/processors are offered Affiliate Marketing. info@cbdgirlnextdoor.com

It is not wise to use a product without full transparency. Insist on a verifiable full profile COA with any hemp product. Identify the testing lab with a header on the lab work. Do not accept a lab report without identifying language and contact information. Identify that COA with a correlating batch number.

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